Table 1.

HSF1 kinases, their targets, and functional consequences

KinaseAmino acid targetFunctional consequences
AMPKαS121Represses HSE binding and promotes HSF1 binding to HSP90
CAMKIIS230Promotes transactivation
Casein kinase IIT142Promotes HSE binding and transactivation
CDK1Meiosis regulation
ERK1/2S307, S326, S363Represses HSE binding and transactivation and is required for 14-3-3ε binding (S307); promotes transactivation (S326) or may inhibit MEK phosphorylation (S326); may repress HSE binding and transactivation (S363)
GSK3αS303Represses trimerization and is required for 14-3-3ε binding
JNKTAD, S307, S320, S363Promotes transactivation and prolongs nuclear localization of HSF1 (TAD); represses HSE binding and transactivation (S307); promotes nuclear localization, HSE binding, transactivation, and may reverse nuclear export (S320); may repress HSE binding and transactivation (S363)
MAPKAP-K2S121Represses HSE binding and promotes HSF1 binding to HSP90
MEKS326Promotes transactivation
mTORS326Promotes transactivation
P38MAPKPromotes HSE binding and transactivation
PI3KS326Promotes transactivation
PKAcαS320Promotes nuclear localization, HSE binding, transactivation, and may reverse nuclear export
PKCα, θ, ζS333, S363Promotes HSF1 dissociation from HSP90 (S333 [PKCθ only]); may repress HSE binding and transactivation (S363)
PLK1S216, S419Mitosis regulation (S216); promotes nuclear translocation (S419)
Rim15Yeast only; promotes HSE binding when PKA activity is lowered by glucose deprivation
RSK2Represses HSE binding
Slt2/MAPK7Represses trimerization
Snf1Yeast only; promotes HSE transactivation under conditions of glucose deprivation
Yak1Yeast only; promotes HSE binding when PKA activity is lowered by glucose deprivation