Table 1.

N-myc–amplified tumors

Tumor typeFrequency of N-myc alterationClinical implicationsReferences
NeuroblastomaAmplification in 20%Poor prognosis, selection for aggressive treatmentSeeger et al. (13), Brodeur et al. (14), Look et al. (15), and Schneiderman et al. (17)
MedulloblastomaAmplification in 5%Poor prognosisAldosari et al. (92) and Swartling et al. (19)
Glioblastoma multiformeOverexpression in a subsetHistone 3.3 mutations associated with overexpression of N-mycHodgson et al. (93) and Bjerke et al. (24)
RetinoblastomaAmplification in <5%Early onset, unilateral, nonhereditary, poor prognosisLee et al. (25) and Rushlow et al. (28)
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcomaAmplification in 25%, overexpressed in 55%Correlates with presence of PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 fusion genes, poor prognosisTonelli et al. (94)
Small-cell lung cancerAmplification in 15%–20%Poor response to chemotherapy, shorter survivalNau et al. (32) and Funa et al. (34)
Prostate cancerAmplification in 40% of neuroendocrine prostate cancer, 5% of prostate adenocarcinomaClinical aggressivenessBeltran et al. (35) and Mosquera et al. (36)
Breast cancerOverexpression in a subsetCorrelates with poor prognostic featuresMizukami et al. (37)