Table 1.

Summary of effects of Smad3 gene dosage on biologic responses to TGF-β

Biologic activityClass of responseResponse to TGF-β in IMECS of different genotypes
Smad3+/+Smad3+/−Smad3−/−
Growth inhibitionTumor suppression++
ApoptosisTumor suppression+
MigrationPro-progression+±
InvasionPro-progression++ to ++