Table 1.

Effects of rituximab on intracellular signaling pathways

Targeted pathwayCell line modelBiologic effectReference
PKCζ/Raf/MEK/ERK/mTORFL cell linesInhibition of survival(20)
A-SMase/CER/p27(Kip1)FL and BL cell linesInhibition of proliferation(19)
Caspase 3/9FL cell linesApoptosis(22)
CD20 relocalization in raft/calcium influx/caspases 3/7BL cell lines(16)
Src/calcium influx/caspasesNHL cell lines(23)
Calcium influxBL cell linesCI-PCD(24)
ΔΨmBL cell lines(25)
LC3IIBL cell linesMacroautophagy(26)
p38/SP1/IL10/STAT3/Bcl-2BL cell linesChemosensitization(27)
RKIP/Raf1/MEK/ERK/AP1/Bcl-xLNHL cell lines
RKIP/NIK/TAK/IKK/NF-κB/Bcl-xLBL cell lines
PI3K/PDK1/Akt/Bad/IKK/NF-κB/Bcl-xLB-NHL cell lines
Src/Raf1/MEK1/2/ERK1/2/AP-1/Bcl-xLFL-NHL cell lines
p38/MAPK/STAT3/NF-κB/SP1/Bcl-2FL-NHL cell lines
PI3K/Akt/NF-κBB-NHL cell lines
YY1, NF-κB, Bcl-xLNHL cell lines
p38 MAPK/NFκB/YY1/FasB-NHL cell linesSensitization to Fas
Fas translocation in raft/DISC formationBL cell linesSensitization to Fas(28)
YY1B-NHL cell linesSensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL(29)
Caspase 3/7NHL cell lines and xenograftSensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL(30)
Survivin/AIF/XIAP/Hsp70FL and BL cell linesSensitization to radiation(31)

Abbreviations: AIF, apoptosis-inducing factor; A-SMase, acid-sphingomyelinase; BL, Burkitt lymphoma; B-NHL, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; CER, ceramide; CI-PCD, caspase-independent programmed cell death; DISC, death-inducing signaling complex; IKK, inhibitor of nuclear factor κβ kinase; IL10, interleukin-10 protein; LC3II, light chain 3-II protein; NIK, NFκB-inducing kinase; PDK1, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1; RKIP, Raf kinase inhibitory protein; SP1, specific protein 1; STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 factor; TAK, transforming growth factor β activated kinase; XIAP, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein; YY1, Yin Yang 1.