Table 1.

Target genes regulated by GLI1/2-mediated activity

Target geneCancer type(s)Effect/cancer hallmark potentiatedReferences
Cyclin D1/2Skin, brain, breastProliferationYoon et al (27); Fiaschi et al (79)
OsteopontinMelanoma, breast cancerProliferation, invasion/migrationYoon et al (27); Das et al (30)
Bcl2Gastric, brain, pancreatic, skin, lymphomaAntiapoptosis, prosurvivalXu et al (29); Han et al (35); Bar et al (106); Bigelow et al (37); Singh et al (23)
IGFBP6PancreaticProliferationXu et al (29)
MUC5ACPancreaticEMT/invasion/migrationInaguma et al (53)
PTCHBCC, brainProliferationBerman et al (25)
Snai1Skin, breastEMT/invasion/migrationLi et al (51, 67); Fiaschi et al (79)
JAG2GastricEMT/invasion/migrationReviewed in Katoh and Katoh (107)
FOXM1Basal cell carcinomaProliferationTeh et al (36)
MDM2BreastProsurvival, proliferationAbe et al (38)
↓P21OvarianProliferationChen et al (24)
↓P27OvarianProliferationChen et al (24)
VEGFPancreaticAngiogenesisYamazaki et al (44)
Ang1/2PancreaticAngiogenesisYamazaki et al (44)

NOTE: The Hedgehog pathway is known to elicit several signaling cascades due to the variety of molecules generated by its activation. Although some of the targets are direct, several functional changes may be indirect. Hedgehog signaling may increase, decrease, or stabilize signaling molecules that essentially contribute to the promalignant tumor microenvironment.