Table 1.

HDAC Characteristics

Class I
Class IIA
Class IIB
Class IV
LocalizationNucleusNucleusNucleusNucleusNucleus/cytoplasmNucleus/cytoplasmNucleus/cytoplasmNucleus/cytoplasmMostly cytoplasmMostly cytoplasmNucleus/cytoplasm
Size (amino acids)4834884283771,0841,1228551,0111,215669347
Chromosomal localization1p34.16q215q31Xq132q37.217q2112q137p21-p15Xp11.22-2322q13.31-q13.333p25.2
Catalytic sites11111111212
Tissue distributionUbiquitousUbiquitousUbiquitousUbiquitous? Smooth muscle differentiationH, SM, BH, SM, BH, PL, PA, SMB, SMH, L, K, PAL, S, KB, H, SM, K
Substrates (partial list)Androgen receptor, SHP, p53, MyoD, E2F-1, Stat3Glucocorticoid receptor, YY-1, Bcl-6, Stat3SHP, YY-1 GATA-1, RelA, Stat3, MEF2DGCMa, GATA-1, HP-1GCMa, Smad7, HP-1PLAG1, PLAG2α-Tubulin, Hsp90, SHP, Smad7
Binding partners (partial list)CDK9, SP1, PP4cEST1BANKRA, RFXANKCAMPTA, REA, estrogen receptorFOX3P, HIF-1α, Bcl-6, endothelin receptor, α-actinin 1, α-actinin 4, androgen receptor, Tip60FOX3PRunx2
Knockout phenotypeEL increased histone acetylation, increase in p21 and p27Cardiac defectDefects in chondrocyte differentiationCardiac defectMaintenance of vascular integrity, increase in MMP10Cardiac defect
  • Abbreviations: H, heart; SM, skeletal muscle; B, brain; PL, placenta; PA, pancreas; L, liver; K, kidney; S, spleen. EL, embryonic lethal. Stat3, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3; CDK9, cyclin-dependent kinase 9; MMP10, matrix metalloproteinase 10; Hsp90, heat shock protein 90; HIF-1α, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.