Table 1.

Effect of PKC-ζ on Caco-2 Cell Apoptosis

TransfectantsTreatmentDAPI (%)TUNEL (%)
EV−PA1.9 ± 0.27.6 ± 2.6
PKC-ζ−PA3.0 ± 0.49.8 ± 5.6
EV+PA1.5 ± 0.27.1 ± 1.9
PKC-ζ+PA9.0 ± 0.8*24.6 ± 4.0
  • NOTE: Empty vector and PKC-ζ transfectants were plated on collagen I–coated chamber slides (1.5 × 105/slide flask). After 24 hours, cells were treated with 5 μmol/L ponasterone A or DMSO (no ponasterone A). After 48 hours, cells were fixed and nuclear DNA was stained with DAPI. Apoptosis was assessed by nuclear condensation and fragmentation using a fluorescence microscope. TUNEL assay for fragmented DNA was done with a light microscope using the Apoptag kit (Chemicon International). Rates of apoptosis were expressed as percentage of apoptotic nuclei observed/total nuclei counted and were quantified in duplicate platings for each experiment. Results are means ± SD of two independent experiments.

  • Abbreviations: PA, ponasterone A; EV, empty vector.

  • * P < 0.001 compared with empty vector cells.

  • P < 0.05 compared with empty vector cells.