Table 1.

Overexpression of NDPK-A or NDPK-AS120G Increases the Incidence of Lung Metastasis in an Orthotopic Xenograft Animal Model of Human Neuroblastoma

M1M2M3V1V2V3W1W2W3
Total no. injected mice per clone888888887*
Age ± SD, d50 ± 256 ± 251 ± 449 ± 250 ± 356 ± 249 ± 354 ± 254 ± 2
Tumor growth time ± SD, d26 ± 231 ± 128 ± 124 ± 225 ± 224 ± 124 ± 220 ± 224 ± 1
Primary tumor size ± SD, mm12 ± 29 ± 212 ± 312 ± 315 ± 112 ± 213 ± 313 ± 210 ± 3
No. mice with macrometastasis443212314
No. mice with macrometastases and micrometastases467322526
Incidence of lung metastasisM = 17/24 (71%)V = 7/24 (29%)W = 11/23§ (48%)
  • NOTE: Derived from the human neuroblastoma NB69 cell line, three different clones of stNB-M (M1, M2, and M3) and stNB-W (W1, W2, and W3) transfectants overexpress NDPK-AS120G and NDPK-A, respectively. These six clones and three clones of vector-transfected control cells, stNB-V (V1, V2, and V3), were separately injected into the left adrenal gland of SCID mice. During necropsy, the diameters of the primary tumors were measured and averaged and SD was calculated. Macroscopic lung metastasis was readily detectable based on GFP-positive tumor using the naked eye and a fluorescent imaging system. Microscopic metastasis, with at least 10 cells per tumor focus, was determined under a light microscope for animal lung sections stained with H&E. Number of mice with macrometastasis is defined as the number of animals that displayed at least one fluorescent tumor nodule per animal lungs. Number of mice with macrometastases and micrometastases is defined as the number of animals that displayed at least one fluorescent tumor nodule or one tumor focus per animal lungs. Incidence of lung metastasis is expressed as the total number of mice that displayed macrometastases and/or micrometastasis after injecting 24 mice with three clones of M, V, or W, and the corresponding percentage is shown in parentheses. Age is expressed in days at the time when animals were injected with neuroblastoma cells. Tumor growth time is defined as the number of days between injection and necropsy dates.

  • * Eight mice were injected, but one died with no collectable information.

  • Tumor size is measured in diameter.

  • P < 0.004 versus the V clones (Fisher's exact test).

  • § P = 0.04 versus the V clones (Fisher's exact test).