Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adults and arises from the transformation of melanocytes in the uveal tract. Even after treatment of the primary tumor, up to 50% of patients succumb to metastatic disease. The liver is the predominant organ of metastasis. There is an important need to provide effective treatment options for advanced stage UM. In order to provide the preclinical basis for new treatments, it is important to understand the molecular underpinnings of the disease. Recent genomic studies have shown that mutations within components of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling are early events associated with ~98% of UMs. Implications: This review discusses the alterations in GPCR signaling components (GNAQ and GNA11), dysregulated GPCR signaling cascades, and viable targeted therapies with the intent to provide insight into new therapeutic strategies in UM.
- Received January 4, 2017.
- Revision received February 3, 2017.
- Accepted February 15, 2017.
- Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.