Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) plays a critical role in growth suppression. Previous study indicated that Gas1 was closely associated with survival in patients with colorectal cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of Gas1 in tumorigenesis and metastasis, and elucidate the possible mechanism. Firstly, Gas1 was determined as a negative regulator of oncogenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer. Mechanistically, Gas1 negatively regulated the aerobic glycolysis, a process that contributed to tumor progression and metastasis by providing energy source and building blocks for macromolecule synthesis. To further consolidate the role of Gas1 in glycolysis, the impact of Gas1 in the transcription of key glycolytic enzymes for glucose utilization was examined. As expected, GLUT4, HK2 and LDHB exhibited a decreased expression pattern. Consistent with this observation, an in vivo subcutaneous xenograft mouse model also confirmed the hypothesis that Gas1 is a negative regulator of glycolysis as reflected by the decreased 18FDG uptake in PET/CT system. Moreover, Gas1 negatively regulated the AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K signaling axis, a well-established cascade that regulates malignant cancer cell behaviors including proliferation, metastasis and aberrant cancer metabolism. In the end, it was determined that Gas1 is a transcriptional target of FOXM1, whose role in colorectal cancer has been widely studied. Taken together, these studies establish Gas1 as a negative regulator in colorectal cancer. Implications: Gas1 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion, and aerobic glycolysis of colorectal cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Gas1 inhibited EMT and the Warburg effect via AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K signaling, and Gas1 itself was directly regulated by the transcription factor FOXM1.
- Received January 28, 2016.
- Revision received June 4, 2016.
- Accepted June 24, 2016.
- Copyright ©2016, American Association for Cancer Research.